Constitutional Provision

“The state shall protect its seas, shores, lakes, waterways, and natural reserves. Trespassing, polluting, or misusing any of them is prohibited. Every citizen has the guaranteed right to enjoy them. The state will provide for the protection and development of green space in urban areas; the preservation of plant, livestock, and fish resources; the protection of endangered species; and the kind treatment of animals (al-rifq bil-hayawan), all according to law.”

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt: 18 January 2014, Part 2 Foundations of Society, Chapter 2 Economic Foundations, Art. 45


• Stilt, K, ‘Constitutional Innovation and Animal Protection in Egypt’ Law and Social Inquiry (forthcoming 2017). (update)

• World Animal Protection, ‘Animal Protection Index’, available at (15 February 2017).

• Makhluf, HM, Al-Rifq Bil-Hayawan Fi Din al-Islam (al-Matba’at al-Madani 1964).