Constitutional Provision

“Mindful also of its responsibility toward future generations, the state shall protect the natural foundations of life and animals by legislation and, in accordance with law and justice, by executive and judicial action, all within the framework of the constitutional order.”

Basic Law of the Republic of Germany, Part. II, Art. 20a

Available at:


• 1 BvR 1864/14 (8 December 2015)

Case Summary  •  Original Case Text  •  English Translation

• 2 BvF 1/07 (12 October 2010)

Case Summary  •  Original Case Text  •  English Translation

• 1 BvR 2186/06 (3 July 2007)

Case Summary  •  Original Case Text  •  English Translation

• 1 BvR 1778/01 (16 March 2004)

Case Summary  •  Original Case Text  •  English Translation


• Evans, E, ‘Constitutional Inclusion of Animal Rights in Germany and Switzerland: How Did Animal Protection Become an Issue of National Importance?’ (2010) 18 Society and Animals 231.

• Foster, N, and Sule, S, German Legal System and Laws (4th edn OUP 2010).

• Haßmann, H, Embryonenschutz im Spannungsfeld internationaler Menschenrechte, staatlicher Grundrechte und nationaler Reglungsmodelle zur Embryonenforschung (Springer 2003).

• Haupt, CE, ‘Free Exercise of Religion and Animal Protection: A Comparative Perspective on Ritual Slatughter’ (2007) 39 GWashIntlLRev 839.

• Haupt, CE, ‘The Nature and Effects of Constitutional State Objectives: Assessing the German Basic Law’s Animal Protection Clause’ (2010) 16 Journal of Animal Law 213.

• Haupt, CE, ‘Who Let the Dangerous Dogs Out? The German State’s Hasty Legislative Action, the Federal Law on Dangerous Dogs and the ‘Kampfhunde’ Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court’ (2006) 2 Journal of Animal Law 27.

• Langenfeld, C, ‘Developments: Germany’ (2003) 1 ICON 141.

• Michel, M, ‘Law and Animals: An Introduction to Current European Animal Protection Legislation’ in Peters, A, Stucki, S, and Boscardin, L, (eds), Animal Law: Reform or Revolution? (Schulthess 2015) 87.

• Nattrass, KM, ‘‘Und die Tiere’ Constitutional Protection for Germany’s Animals’ (2004) 10 Journal of Animal Law 283.

• Smith, D, ‘‘Cruelty of the Worst Kind’: Religious Slaughter, Xenophobia, and the German Greens’ (2007) 40 Central European History 89.

• Stucki, S, ‘Die Nutzung kommt vor dem Schutz’ (2016) 3 Rechts Wissenschaft 521.