Constitutional Provision

“Art. 51A (g) of the Constitution of the Republic of India:

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India—


(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;”

Available at:


• Animal Welfare Board of India v A Nagaraja and Others (2014) 7 SCC 547

Case Summary  •  Case Text

Centre for Environmental Law WWF-I v Union of India and Others (2013) 8 SCC 234

Case Summary  •  Case Text

TN Godavarman v Union of India (2012) 3 SCC 277

Case Text

State of Gujarat v Mirzapur Moti Kureshi Kassab Jamat (2005) 8 SCC 534

Case Summary  •  Case Text

Indian Handicrafts Emporium v Union of India and Others (2003) 7 SCC 589

Case Summary  •  Case Text


• Austin, G, Working a Democratic Constitution: A History of the Indian Experience (OUP 1999).

• Jacobsohn, GJ, ‘An Unconstitutional Constitution: A Comparative Perspective’ (2006) 4.3 ICON 460.
Jaswal, N, ‘Fundamental Duties’ in Katz, SN, (ed.), Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (OUP 2009).

• Madan, TN, ‘Wither Indian Secularism’ (1993) 27.3 Modern Asian Studies 667.

• Venugopal, V, ‘Jallikattu Villages Say Only a Party that Respects Tamil Sentiment Will Be Voted to Power’ (3 May 2016) The Times of India: Economic Times.